I've been a fan of sci-fi my whole life, both for reading/watching and writing, and I'm also starting to get more involved in fantasy. I have grown to love world-building as much as I have always loved developing individual characters, but one particular area that I don’t see getting a lot of attention on sites like this is xenopsychology: making non-human characters such that their drives and thought processes are clearly inhuman. There’s certainly talk that writers need to make non-human characters inhuman, but I haven’t seen a lot of advice on how to do that. I have a few ideas that I use the most, and I’m starting this thread in case anybody else has their own ideas that they think a fellow world-builder could also use. My own favorite process, at it's simplest, boils down to 2 points: A) define humans they way I define everybody else. B) make more background characters than I will end up using. Characterization, be it for groups or for individuals, only matters through contrast with other characterizations. If one species has certain tendencies, then another species should have markedly different tendencies, likewise for cultures within a species, likewise for people within a culture. I might only use 2 species, 2 cultures/species, and 2 people/culture in a particular work, and I might not even give screen time to all 8 of the characters that I’ve come up with, but I’ve still been forced to better flesh out the characters that I do use by forcing myself to contrast them with more than just each other. Now imagine what a writer could do with 3 species * 3 cultures/species * 3 people/culture. _____ Does anybody else have tips they’d like to share?