In my psych class, I recently learnt about a concept called 'inner speech'. This is basically an internal, verbal narrative of whatever you're thinking about. Anyway, not everyone uses inner speech - in particular, people with certain kinds of brain damage don't, such as many people with aphasia. My question is: How do I depict, in first person perspective, someone who isn't using inner speech? One of my characters at one point is affected by a spell that disrupts some of his mental abilities, and I'm thinking one effect of that is inability to use inner speech. But the entire story is written in first person, and it'll be really jarring to switch perspective. And he's definitely conscious of the experience, and will remember it later, so I can't just skip over it. Could I do it just by focusing my writing on his sensory impressions and other experiences that could be represented entirely nonverbally? (This would accomplish the benefit of making his thought process noticeably different from usual, and therefore signal to the reader that something's wrong with him.) I mean, some people may argue that anytime you're writing first person, you're implying that this is their internal narrative, but couldn't it be seen as a translation, kind of like dialogue written in English when the characters were really speaking Westron?