Ory's Writing notes: Conjunctions and Interjections
A conjunction is a word that joins words, phrases, or clauses.
A coordinating conjunction is a conjunction that joins words, phrases, or clauses, that are all grammatically equal (This be where I fuck up my conjunction use, just remember that your list has to be all nouns, or verbs, or adjective, or phrases, or clauses, but not a mixture of the bunch).
Here is a list of Coordinating Conjunctions and what they mean:
And- Combines two or more positive or negative ideas.
But- Connects two or more true but contrasting ideas.
Or- Presents a choice between ideas. Only one of the ideas is true or possible.
Nor- Combines two or more negative ideas. None of the ideas are true or possible.
Yet- Connects two or more ideas that are somewhat contrasting.
For- Explains a reason or purpose.
So- Shows an effect or result.
You use a Comma when you are joining two independent clauses (we'll get to clauses later, but in essence, they are simple sentences.) or you have a list of words
Example: I love Math. Beth loves History. = I love math, but Beth loves history.
Example: I love math, history, and gym.
Note: You can start a sentence with a conjunction for dramatic effect. (Before you do this ask yourself if you are doing it properly and you understand the effect you are creating by this.)
Correlative Conjunctions are words that work in pairs to create an even more dramatic effect for the words, phrases, or clauses that are being joined together. They are:
Either...or... (used to express options or outcomes.)
Not only...but also...
Whether... or... (used in indirect questions.)
Parallel ideas are correct when they are Grammatically equal. Parallel ideas must be equal when they are presented in a series.
A Series of Nouns: I danced with Mark, Ryan, and Ben.
A Series of Verbs: We were grasping and gasping.
A Series of Adjectives: The big, red, Japanese balloon floated away.
A Series of prepositional phrases: Through the forest, over the bridge, and across the river to home we go.
A Series of predicates: I danced Rumba, drunk rum, and flirted with guys all night long.
A Series of Clauses: I love math, David loves history, and Jack loves English.
A series can really be anything as long as the part are all Grammatically equal.
A Conjunctive adverb, like a conjunction, connects ideas but in stronger ways. Conjunctive adverbs show a relationship between clauses. They can compare, combine, contrast, empathize, summarize, illustrate, show sequence, and concede ideas.
Some examples: However, also, otherwise.
A conjunctive adverb can also be used in the middle of a sentence for as a parenthetical expression.
Example: I want to leave, namely, for Germany.
When Punctuating around Conjunctive adverbs you have to look at the way they are being used.
Parenthetical expression: I want to leave, Namely, for Germany. (A comma on both sides of the conjunctive adverb.)
Joining two clauses: I bumped and grinded on David all night long; seriously, he loved it. (semicolon on one side and a comma on the other.)
Starting a sentence: I bumped and grinded on David all night long. Seriously, he loved it. (If the Conjunctive adverb starts a sentence, just a comma after the word.
Subordinating conjunctions join two clauses together by making one of them a dependent clause (we will be getting to clauses soon.) Subordinating Conjunctions are the strongest type of Conjunction. They are used to introduce adverb or noun clauses.
Here are a few examples of Subordinating conjunctions: Unless, Before, In order that, Rather than.
If you start the sentence with a subordinating conjunction, you need a comma before the two clauses. (Re-read this sentence for an example.)
You don't need a comma if you use the subordinating conjunction to join two clauses. (Re-read this sentence for an example.)
Other words that can be used as Conjunctions are Relative pronouns (That, which, Whom, Who, Whose). Relative pronouns are used to introduce a noun or adjective clause. Relative adverbs (Where, when, why) are used to introduce adjective clauses. Whatever, whoever, Whomever, what, whichever are used to introduce noun clauses (again, we will get to clauses later.)
A few more odds and ends.
Like should only be used when followed by a noun.
Example: You look like a wildebeest. (Trust me, Gentlemen, this complement always gets you a second date.)
As, As if, As though should be used to join clauses together.
The chimes sound as though rain were falling.
Such as is used before a list.
Example: You need to learn dances such as the Waltz, Rumba, and Foxtrot.
While Conjunctions can be used to create dramatic effects by combining two or more ideas, Interjections are used to express emotion and subtext. (This is a great way to show off your character). Interjections use fad words, and onomatopoeias (A literary musical device I use a lot) and have no grammatical purpose. The most famous Interjection is the word 'fuck' (No, that is not a joke.)
There are a few places you can place an interjection.
Beginning: Fuck, I just got beat up.
Middle: I found my keys, fuck yeah, I can finally go home.
End: This feels so good, fuck.
There are a few ways to punctuate an injection.
To express strong emotion use a (!)
To express mild emotion use a (,)
To express doubt, a question or uncertainty use a (?)
If you want the interjection to stand by itself use a (.)
This ends my notes on Conjunctions and Interjections. In conclusion, Conjunctions are used to combine or express ideas with or against each other and can be used to create a dramatic effect. Interjections are used to express emotion and subtext from the speaker. Next, I will be moving onto Verbals.
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