In my setting which is dominated by advanced industrial civilizations with FTL capabilities, there are still large swaths of the population that live lives not much better than most peasants throughout history. This is here for mostly stylistic reasons, but I wanted a reason. Since I am no economist, I'm sure I'm missing something, so feedback and commentary on my reasoning are wanted and appreciated! The in-universe reason this poverty exists is primarily religious. There is a religion known as Solarianisim which sprouted up in many civilizations on different planets without contact, having many similar tenants of faith. Solarianisim teaches against living luxuriously, but the primary reason is the Chapters of Mechanicum. The Chapters of Mechanicum detail the moral objections against sentient-ai, and also illustrate (And overstate ) the dangers of automation. This is taken extremely seriously by the Solarians since they have literal mountains of relics to back up the stories of the Chapters of Mechanicum. This made most Solarian civilizations very cautious about industrialization, using primarily ancient factories that are considered "hallowed" and safe from demonic corruption, with more rudimentary production facilities of their own. In more modern nations, the populations of these peasants are usually low, though not unheard of. But in more backwater nations, like the newly formed Renovatum Republic, they constitute the majority of the population. Yet again, any critiques and feedback are welcome, and I am more than happy to clarify anything.