Language immersion, or simply immersion, is a technique used in bilingual language education in which two languages are used for instruction in a variety of topics, including math, science, or social studies.The languages used for instruction are referred to as the L1 and the L2 for each student, with L1 being the native language of the student and L2 being the second language to be acquired through immersion programs and techniques. There are different contexts for language immersion, such as age of students, class time spent in the L2, subjects taught, and the level of participation by the native L1 speakers.
Although programs differ by country and context, most language immersion programs have the overall goal of promoting bilingualism between the two different sets of language speakers. In many cases, biculturalism is also a goal for speakers of the majority language (i.e. the language spoken by the majority of the surrounding population) and the minority language (i.e. the language that is not the majority language). Research has shown that these forms of bilingual education provide students with overall greater language comprehension and production of the L2 in a native-like manner; in addition to, greater exposure to other cultures and the preservation of languages, particularly heritage languages.