I took a look at one of my and @KaTrian's old WIPs set in a medieval fantasy world and realized the medicine in that world is far too advanced for the tone we were originally going for, so we'd like to make that aspect of the story more realistic. What I've gathered so far has been that letting blood and enemas were generally considered the be all end all to most common ailments and that people didn't understand that it was a good idea to keep wounds clean. What I'm wondering is are there any "home remedy versions" of antibiotics they might have used back then? Can any sources of antibiotics (or any equivalents that might help with infections) be found in nature? Or can antibiotics of any kind be produced with the tech they had in, say, 1300A.D? I'd also need any kind of estimates (I don't mind rough) as to the survival rates for the following injuries in the following conditions: the injured character is a strong, healthy 17yo and these injuries go untreated for a few hours or so. If necessary, I could provide some first-aid (like applying bandages), but if it's not necessary, I'd rather take the character as close to death as possible while still steering well clear from the realm of miracle healings. The injuries: -bicep pierced by a sharpened wooden stick (about 2cm or 3/4" in diameter) at the bottom of a trap -a cut on the forearm (about 10cm / 4" long and roughly 0,5cm / 0,2" deep) -dozens of welts / lacerations (not all of them open wounds) on the back from lashes from the buckle end of a belt There's one more injury, but I got a few more questions about that: During a tussle, while the character is on horseback, a footsoldier uses a dagger to stab the character between the thigh and groin (is there an English name for the bend between the two? I mean where the thigh starts. Inguen?), roughly around the inguinal ligament, somewhere between the pectineus and adductor (or thereabouts). How deep can a stab wound in that general area (give or take a few inches downwards or to either side, but not up towards the torso) be without being fatal? I know the femoral artery and vein pass through that general area, and I'd really rather the blade didn't cut those as I want the character to survive (but I don't mind keeping them bed-ridden for a week or two). What are the chances that such a wound, if it wasn't treated immediately, would be fatal? For instance, if it was an inch deep? Two inches? If the artery (or any other major blood vessels) hasn't been damaged, would it bleed a lot? Enough to cause the character to pass out and eventually bleed to death within a few hours? What are the chances of survival (again, ballpark estimate is more than enough) with all the aforementioned injuries combined? Also, any idea how large the usual enemas were back in those days? I think they used clysters, but I'm not sure if there was any standard as to the sizes of the syringes. I'd also like to ask about medieval treatments of urinary tract infection and urinary retention (caused by said infection). I believe they used long, thin metal tubes to get the urine going again, but how high (approximately) was the survival rate of those procedures? Does it matter if the patient is male or female? From what I've gathered, it's a bit trickier to perform the procedure on a female, but correct me if I'm wrong. Would the catheter be removed as soon as no more urine comes out? Is it likely that the catheter itself will cause scrapes and cuts that'll cause bloody urine? How common is it for such an infection to cause urinary retention and at which point since the onset of the infection would it take place? If they managed to drain the urine, how would they then proceed to treat the infection itself? Can cold alone cause an UTI? For instance, if the character lays in deep snow for several minutes (e.g. in -10C / 14F). How big of a difference would it make if their clothes or at least pants were wet? I've heard that sometimes when you choke out a person, they may wet or soil themselves. Does this apply only to choking (unconsciousness brought on by lack of bloodflow to the brain) or can it also happen if the person was knocked unconscious? I'm talking of a fairly severe concussion where the victim is unconscious / borderline unconscious (to the point of being incapacitated) for several minutes, veering close to the time limit when it starts to resemble a coma (but not quite that long). Sorry about the avalanche of questions. I'll keep googling and asking around and I'll retract the questions to which I find reliable answers, but it'd be much appreciated if you folks could answer even some of the questions. Thanks in advance!