Question 1: Gun shot wound that won't kill A character in my and @T.Trian's WIP is running from the bad guys who shoot to kill. This happens in the near future, but she's wearing armor which would be close to our type VI plate armor (ceramic/steel). An armor-piercing 7.62x51 round should hit her to a spot that would both 1) be a believable spot so that it doesn't seem like the bad guys are terribly incompetent 2) doesn't kill her or take her out of the fight or put her on sick leave (from the armed forces) for longer than, say, a month or a bit more. Is there a spot on the torso that could only result in a muscle wound? E.g. on the left side, below the ribs? Or possibly around the upper back? How about the butt if the bullet hits at a horizontally diagonal angle (only penetrating the buttock)? Obviously the butt is not protected by plate armor so there the round would pass clean through and wouldn't result in a large cavity either due to the short distance it would travel inside the flesh. Bullet specs: Weight and type of the projectile: 147 gr (10 g) Armor Piercing (e.g. steel core in a copper jacket) Velocity: 2,733 ft/s (833 m/s) Energy transferred to target: 2,437 ft·lbf (3,304 J) Wound specs: Entrance/exit wound: just a pin prick on the surface, about >1/4" under the skin Temporary wound cavity (at its widest, starting at 7" into the body): 8" Permanent wound cavity (at its widest, starting at 7" into the body): 1,6" The thickness of her torso: 6-10" Those wound specs do not take the ballistic armor into account, so it's highly probable that the specs are different after the bullet has first penetrated the ceramic/steel plate. At this point it's unclear if it would cause the bullet to start rotating sooner, meaning the wound cavity might get bigger earlier, or if the plate (which peels off at least the copper jacket if not a part of the steel as well) actually makes the wound smaller in the end. Damages caused by temporary wound cavities in these kinds of muscle wounds probably aren't all that significant because there's no shattering bone or anything that would cause the bullet to fragment unless the armor plate does that, but the videos of firing AP rounds at such plates appear to show (sometimes it's hard to tell) that the rounds tend to pass through the first plate in one piece or at least without significant fragmentation. It's probably difficult to give any accurate estimates, but if someone has a believable injury scenario in mind, that'd be very helpful. Question 2: Zapping the balls Another character won't obey the bad guys, so they decide to persuade him by tasing his testicles (two separate zaps). Apparently this is extremely excruciating and most likely will result in bruising and burns, but will it leave permanent damage? The stun gun used delivers roughly 1,200 volts, the average voltage is 0.76 volts in one second, the duration of the two shocks is a few seconds per shock. The peak power of the device is about 3-amps. Thanks in advance!