On another forum, some cool antho ideas were sparking cool discussions. I figured you guys would appreciate a thread like this, maybe. Studying anthropology is probably helpful for worldbuilding, and like, appreciating human diversity and stuff. Feel free to share quotes, excerpts, articles, books, videos, or your own perspective on anthropological concepts here. My contribution: Came across this paper recently, called Women In Paleolithic and Neolithic Times (edit to add: after further investigation (see below), it looks like the 80/20 ratio in this piece may not be accurate): Anthropologists have surveyed nearly two hundred hunter/gathering cultures in Oceania, Asia, Africa and the Americas, and have developed some fundamental points on these studies. While hunting was almost exclusively done by males, it was inefficient as a means for providing food. Meat from the kill comes in irregularly and infrequently, and cannot be stored adequately. Kung Bushmen of Botswana hunt strenuously for a week, and rest the other three weeks. Thus, women's gathering of the food stuffs not men's hunting, sustains the tribe of these present-day Stone Age cultures. Hunting by men provides twenty percent of the nourishment, but women regularly produce eighty percent of the tribe's total food consumed. These conclusions can then be transferred backward to the hunting/gathering societies of prehistoric cultures. Women in these ancient times must not have relied on the men for food. Through teeth analysis it has been discovered that grain, nuts and fruits were the major foods not meat. It was long thought that the "Ice Man" found in the Italian Alps in 1991 was a hunter who had died on a quest for big game. New analysis of his hair shows that most of his proteins came from vegetable sources, which his teeth corroborate. He ate very little meat, and in the months before he died, his diet did not include meat. Successful gathering demanded and developed skills of discrimination, evaluation and memory. The range of seeds, nutshells and grasses discovered at primitive sites in Africa 2 indicate careful and knowledgeable selection rather than random gleaning. One of my favorite anthropologists, Wade Davis, talks a bunch about culture: A quote I grabbed from Goodreads, from Jared Diamond's super popular book Guns, Germs and Steel: It seems logical to suppose that history's pattern reflects innate differences among people themselves. Of course, we're taught that it's not polite to say so in public. We see in our daily lives that some of the conquered peoples continue to form an underclass, centuries after the conquests or slave imports took place. We're told that this too is to be attributed not to any biological shortcomings but to social disadvantages and limited opportunities. Nevertheless, we have to wonder. We keep seeing all those glaring, persistent differences in peoples' status. We're assured that the seemingly transparent biological explanation for the world's inequalities as of A.D. 1500 is wrong, but we're not told what the correct explanation is. Until we have some convincing, detailed, agreed-upon explanation for the broad pattern of history, most people will continue to suspect that the racist biological explanation is correct after all. That seems to me the strongest argument for writing this book. Share away!