@Pharthan's thread reminded me I need help with curses myself. But he's dealing with a future version of English and I'm dealing with Dragonese, Dragonian, and Shkatardik, all languages I invented, so my issue is slightly different. I'm not going to have f--k and s--t and such in my book to keep it clean, so don't ask. I'm Mormon and I'm not going to use real swear words in my book. (I'm not Orson Scott Card, and I'm not writing for an exclusively adult audience.) Now, onto the languages. We'll start with Shkatardik, which has a swear word for everything. Want to call someone a no good, dirty rotten Khrizan? Just use the Shkatardik word for Khrizan, which is a slur. You don't have to waste time with modifiers and adjectives (unless you want to.) Don't want to attach the word a** to everything for emphasis (big-a**, slow-a**, dumba**, etc) just use the Shkatardik word. Just whatever you do, don't say "I love you". It's incredibly lewd and you could get your cloaca slashed. Anyway, Shkatardik is meant to be sprinkled into one's native speech but you could use complete sentences in it if you wanted to. Fun bit of trivia: Shkatardik's inventors, the Vrakardians, were sailors. The only word I've come up with is shilt, which means to scrape. (I've got to shilt all these barnacles off my ship now.) Then there's Dragonian, the Vrakardians' everyday language. Here's a sample of some non-swears to get a feel for the language's flavor: barstul (which means chair, and yes, they are heavy drinkers, why do you ask?) Quaru (their god) arundit ba (hurry up) dasfaru (an acceptance of apology) bardu (a boat) Mudglubar (a famous warrior who aided Khriza in a war) Acbaradus (another warrior who aided Khriza) Balur (see above) vashtu (a ghost) dopsa (oops) bortu (a big ship) dalu (the sea) Jarud (a city on the mother isle) Dalkras (the mother isle) Kaldred (a member of the clan of Kaldras, a Vrakardian territory) Droka (a name) Truba (a Dalkred chief) Figo (a Kaldred chief) Ragul (Figo's brother and successor) Amaluron (Rahul's successor) Luhorn (a captain) phoblar (catapult) I have two swears-- balchu, meaning swill, garbage, leakage or bad drink-- and barschut, which is like d*mmit, but they have a separate word for damnation and it's just used as a general exclamation of frustration. (There's a character in the book named Javak who's so clumsy they call him Barschut Javak because nearly every time they address him, it's to immediately exclaim "Barschut, Javak!" when he screws up. And finally, Dragonese, modern language of the Khrizans, my protagonist species. I generally don't use it regularly except for names. (For a sample of these, see https://www.writingforums.org/threads/my-characters-listed-by-importance.151676/.) I do use a few words without translating them, such as: Rishnaran (Writer) Irvanira (Inspiration) rakatar (an instrument) takshar (see above) kran (see above) ingzai (small gold coins) katai (small silver coins) nak (a small copper coin) khavraz (a type of weapon) I also have euphemistic expletives-- the hecks and farms of the Dragonese language, including: dakking shkak skarg argshak and one swear word-- shnat, which is a mass noun used contemptuously to refer to something, or used as an exclamation. One could argue it translates to "s--t" but it doesn't carry the association with dung. (Shrakt does, but it isn't a curse.) A note that Dragonese only contains the letters a, sh, d, e, f, g, h, i, k, n, r, s, t, v, and z. With all that explained, can anyone help beef up my characters cursing vocabulary?